Rod and Staff Math

"Rod and Staff's math program is black-and-white, straightforward, no-nonsense, traditional mathematics with an emphasis on drill and memorization as well as practical application through word problems. Previously taught concepts are continuously reviewed." —Cathy Duffy

The Mathematics for Christian Living Series is designed with these goals in mind: (1) to emphasize proper Biblical values; (2) to teach useful number facts and skills; (3) to give a balanced emphasis on concepts, computation, and applications; (4) to enable the pupil to do the lessons with a minimum of help from the teacher; and (5) to include reading or reasoning problems that involve a spiritual lesson, a Biblical principle, a challenge, or some usefulness in everyday life.

Number facts and skills are taught by the traditional method. The goal is to prepare the student to be a laborer in the kingdom of God and to the glory of God. Realistic problems from everyday life are employed. Many of the problems are arranged horizontally, which will help the student to develop mental arithmetic skills. The series was written with the belief that it is effective to teach one mathematical operation continuously over a several-week period (mastery approach) rather than studying one concept today, another tomorrow, and so on and then repeating the cycle (spiral approach).

A strong emphasis is placed on mastery of skills with an endeavor to provide sufficient drill so the average student may accomplish this. Extra practice sheets are included, usually in the form of blackline masters, which may be copied by teachers as needed to give additional drill. Speed drills are provided also, emphasizing accuracy first and then speed.

The lessons for the first two grades are in workbook form. Grades 3 and above are in reusable, hardcover-book form. The pupil's text is included as part of the teacher's manual.

Note about Algebra:

Because algebra is not introduced until grade 7, in the lower grades the exercises involving mixed operations are provided to give practice with mixed calculations, and should be done in sequential order. The standard algebraic order of operations is introduced along with algebraic expressions in grade 7.

Also, Although grades 7 and 8 introduce some algebraic concepts, and some users have felt that to be sufficient preparation for taking Algebra I, it is not designed as a thorough pre-algebra course. Rod and Staff is developing an Algebra course, but it will take several years to prepare.


Mathematics for Christian Living Series

  Grade 1
Beginning Arithmetic
Grade 2
Working Arithmetic
Grade 3
Exploring Arithmetic
Grade 4
Progressing With Arithmetic
Grade 5
Gaining Skill With Arithmetic
Grade 6
Understanding Mathematics
Grade 7
Mastering Mathematics
Grade 8
Applying Mathematics
Grades 9-10
Recordkeeping for Christian Stewardship
Counting, Numbers, Algebra

Counting to 250

Skip-counting: 2s, 5s, 10s, 25s

Cardinal and ordinal numbers

Place value to 100s

Place value to 10,000

Even and odd numbers

Roman numerals I, V, X

Place value to 100,000,000s and 100ths

Roman numerals L, C

Rounding numbers

Place value to 100,000,000,000s and 1,000ths

Roman numerals D, M

Prime numbers, factoring

Roman numerals: bar for thousands

Composite numbers

Lowest common multiple

Greatest common factor

Rules of divisibility

Roman numerals up to the millions

Repeating decimals


Square root

Literal numbers

Evaluating number expressions

Positive and negative numbers


Monomials and polynomials

Binary and duodecimal numeration systems

Scientific notation

Evaluating algebraic expressions

Combining like terms


Addition and subtraction facts to 10

Single columns with 3 addends

Two-place addition and subtraction
(No borrowing or carrying)

Addition and subtraction facts to 18

Simple carrying and borrowing

Rounding to the nearest ten

Before and after

Carrying and borrowing

Multiplication and division facts: 1s-9s


Multiplication facts: 1s-12s

Division facts: 1s-12s



4-digit multiplicands and dividends

2-digit multipliers

Long division

3-digit multipliers

2-digit divisors

Mental arithmetic

4-digit multipliers

3-digit divisors

Mental shortcuts

Short division

Checking by casting out nines

Order of operations

Four processes with signed numbers

Solving equations
Addition and subtraction axioms
Multiplication and division axioms

Commutative and associative laws

Distributive law

Multiplying and dividing numbers with exponents

Extracting square roots

Review of math skills, laws, and shortcuts

Review of solving equations

Fractions, Percents, Decimals

Simple fractions


Decimal points

Parts = whole


Addition and subtraction of fractions

Adding and subtracting decimals

Terms of fractions

Mixed numbers

Reducing and comparing fractions

Multiplication, division

Four processes with decimals

Meaning of percent

Ratio, proportion

Multiplying and dividing mixed numbers

Multiplying and dividing by decimals

Decimal–fraction–percent equivalents

Finding percentage, discount, commision

Nonterminating decimals

Finding a number when a fraction of it is known

Rates over 100%

Increase and decrease

Fraction of a percent

Percent formulas

Complex fractions

Rates less than 1%

Commission formulas

Review of operations

Percent of increase or decrease

Reading Problems

Simple addition and subtraction



No key words in problems





Steps in solving

2-step problems

Finding averages

Distance, rate, time


Multistep problems

Parallel problems

Writing equations

Inverse proportions

Family records

Business records

Money, Banking

Identifying and counting
Penny, nickle, dime, quarter

All coins
Dollar bill
Tracing dollar and cent signs


Counting change

Identifying bills by picture

Simple interest

Expense records

Comparing unit prices

Compound interest

Profit and loss

Checking account
Deposits, checks, reconciliation

Savings account

Compound interest formula

Compound interest table

Budgeting income and expenses

Charge accounts, credit cards


Capital account, asset, liability, debit, credit, markup

Cash or charge sales, refunds, accounts receivable

Purchase invoices, accounts payable, discounts, due dates

Inventory—physical, valuation by weighted-average method

Payroll computation


Telling time to half hour

Cup, pint, quart




Day, week

Telling time to 5 minutes

Minute, hour, month, calendar

Gallon, 1/2 dozen

Foot, yard, 1/2 inch

Ounce, pound

Measuring to 1/2 inch

Fractional parts

Measuring to 1/8 inch

Mile, ton

Changing Measures

Meter, kilometer, centimeter, millimeter, gram, liter

Cubit, span

Scale drawings


Measuring to 1/16 inch


Celsius temperature

Milli-, centi-, deci-, deka-, hecto-, kilo-

Handbreadth, fathom, furlong

English measure
Rod, furlong, league, teaspoon, tablespoon, millennium

Metric units of area

Metric-English conversion

Time zones


Celsius-Fahrenheit conversions

Memorizing metric-English equivalents

Bible measures













Parallelogram, pentagon, hexagon, octagon

Points, lines, angles



Use of protractor

Ray, plane, polygon

Area of parallelogram, triangle, circle

Quadrilateral, heptagon, trapezoid

Isosceles and scalene triangles

Drawing geometric figures

Geometric solids
Surface area and volume

Straight, reflex
Complimentary, supplementary

Geometric constructions with compass

Area of compound figures

Surface area and volume of pyramids and spheres

Pythagorean rule

Review of computing area and volume for many geometric shapes

Graphs, Tables





Purpose of

Circle graphs

Construction of graphs

Tables based on formulas


Double-line graphs

Constructing graphs from formulas

Accounting—balance sheet, journals, ledgers, financial statements

Purchase these books from the
Math Textbooks at Milestone Books

Click on a course to see an overview and sample lessons.

Beginning Arithmetic is designed to start at the beginning of first grade. The 170 lessons are bound into 2 workbooks of 176 pages each, with 1 tear-out sheet for each lesson. First graders can more easily write on one sheet rather than in a thick workbook, and the tear-out pages also make checking more convenient.

No unit or chapter divisions are given. Money, measures, place value, fractions, and so forth are taught throughout the year while addition and subtraction facts are being drilled.

The 170 lessons of Grade 2 are bound in four workbooks. Unit 1 reviews addition and subtraction facts through 10, and other skills taught in Grade 1. Unit 2 teaches all the addition and subtraction factions for the 11s, 12s, and 13s, and carrying and borrowing as well. Unit 3 teaches the 14s and 15s, and Unit 4 teaches the 16s, 17s, and 18s. Continuous review is built into the lessons, and simple reading problems are practiced frequently. Speed drills are included in the workbooks. Money, time, and measures are reviewed; pounds and ounces are introduced, along with one-dollar bills. Calendars, graphs, and quarter-hour and five-minute time increments are taught.

Exploring Arithmetic has 170 lessons. It reviews addition and subtraction skills from Grades 1 and 2 and teaches multiplication and division facts through table 9 and simple two- and three-step multiplication and division. Other concepts drilled are fraction meaning, measure equivalents, money values, and telling time. Mixed computation and Roman numerals are introduced. Continuous review is built into the lessons, and simple reading problems are practiced frequently.

Progressing with Arithmetic has 170 lessons, counting tests, most being two pages long. Lesson concepts are clearly explained to the student. After reviewing the basic facts and teaching the multiplication and division facts 10's-12's, this book teaches long division, multiplying by 2-digit numbers, and checking in the four processes of computation. Reading problem skills include distance-rate-time, 2-step problems, using sketches, and identifying missing information.

Gaining Skill with Arithmetic has 170 lessons (counting tests), most being two pages long. Lesson concepts are clearly explained to the student. This book continues to review the basic facts of the four number processes. It reviews two-digit multipliers, the long division process, measures, large numbers, fractions, and decimals. Other important areas of study are the introduction of two-digit divisors, three-digit multipliers, multiplication and division with decimals and fractions, ratios, geometry, square measure, graphs, and scale drawings. Reading problems are exercised regularly.

The 170 lessons in Grade 6 include the reviews and tests. The lessons explain and illustrate new concepts, which are built on concepts taught in the previous grades. Some new concepts taught in Grade 6 include greatest common factor; decimal-fraction-percent equivalents; finding discounts, commissions, and interest; conversions between English and metric measures; finding areas of parallelograms, triangles, and circles; using a protractor; and constructing graphs.

There are 170 lessons in Mastering Mathematics.

There are 170 lessons in Applying Mathematics.

Click on a course to see an overview and sample lessons.

Purchase these books from the
Math Textbooks at Milestone Books

This site is operated by Milestone Books. We are an independent vendor of materials by Rod and Staff Publishers of Crockett, KY.
The samples on this site are taken from copyrighted materials, and are shown for information purposes only.